What is Partnership Firm? When two or more person agree to start a business which will be carried on by all or any of those partners acting for all, with an aim of earning profit out of the activities of the business, will be called as partnership firm. But the partnership firm is an independent entity like other individuals. Therefore the income of the partnership firm is calculated separately. Income of partners does not have any relation with the income of partnership firm. It means that the tax liability is calculated separately for on income of partners and partnership firm.

The accounts of partnership firm are maintained like other business firms. All the expenses relating to the partnership firms are booked within the permission limit of law. But, in respect of booking the expenditures, following points must be kept in mind for calculation of Income Tax on partnership firm:-


A) Deduction on Account of Interest to Partners on Capital

Though, any amount of interest can be paid to the partners on their capital and can be booked as business expenditure but as per Indian Income Tax Act, interest is allowed only at the rate of 12% per annum. It means if the interest is paid more than this permissible limit, the extra payment will be disallowed while calculating the income of partnership firm.


Mr. X and Mr. Y are the partners of M/s XY Enterprises. They had the credit balance of their capital on 01.04.11 Rs.300000/=. The interest on capital was paid to them for financial year @ 18%. Calculate the allowable amount of interest as per Indian Income Tax Act.


Interest paid on capital (Rs. 300000/= @ 18% )   Rs.54000/=

Interest allowed as per income tax act @12% Rs.36000/=

Dis-allowance of interest (Rs.54000/= less Rs.36000/=)  Rs.18000/=

From above example it is clear that the amount of Rs.18000/= will be added back in the income of partnership firm while calculating the Income Tax liability.

B) Salary & Other Remuneration to the Working partners

Partnership is an independent entity and is run by the partners. Therefore, the working partners are entitled for remuneration by way of salary, commission, bonus or whatever name called. Though, any amount can be given to partners as remuneration and can be booked in profit and loss account but for income tax purpose, there are certain restrictions in respect of remuneration paid to partners, according to Indian Income Tax Act. These restrictions are defined below:-

Particulars Remuneration Allowed
In case of loss before booking the partner’s remuneration. Maximum of Rs.150000/=
For the first Rs.300000/= of book profit 90% of the book profit or Rs.150000/= which ever is more
On the balance of book profit 60% of book profit


  1. Remuneration will be allowed to working partners only.
  2. Remuneration must be according to partnership deed only.
  3. Book Profit means profit before remuneration to partners and interest paid on capital in excess of 12% per annum.


For Financial Year 2011-12, the profit and loss account of M/s XYZ Enterprises shows net profit of Rs.100000/= after adjusting the salary to partners for Rs.500000/=. The frim also paid interest on capital in excess of 12% Rs.50000/=. Calculate net taxable income of Firm.


a) Calculation of Book Profit

Net Profit of Firm after booking the remuneration of partners


Add: Remuneration to partners


Add: Interest on capital paid in excess of 12%


Book Profit


b) Calculation of Remuneration Allowed to Partners

Remuneration allowed on first Rs.300000/= @ 90%


Remuneration allowed on balance Rs.350000/= @ 60%


Total remuneration allowed


c) Calculation of Taxable Income of Partnership Firm

Book Profit of the firm


Less: Remuneration allowed to partners


Net Taxable income of the firm


 Rates of Income Tax for Partnership Firm for financial year 2011-12 (Assessment Year 2012-13)

  1. Partnership firms shall be taxed at flat rate 30%.
  2. Long Term Capital gain shall be taxed @ 20%.
  3. Short Term Capital gains from shares, mutual funds shall be taxed @ 15%.
  4. No Surcharge is payable on Income Tax.
  5. Education Cess will be charged @ 2% on Income tax payable.
  6. Secondary & Higher Education Cess will be charged @ 1% on Income Tax payable.

Filing of Income Tax Return by Partnership Firm

Partnership firm will have to file income tax return irrespective its income.

Assessment of Income of Partners

Any amount of interest, salary, commission, bonus and other remuneration, received by the partners from partnership firm, shall be shown by the partners under the head of “Income from business or profession”.


  1. Salary received from partnership firm shall not be shown by partner under the head “Income from Salary”.
  2. Any expenditure incurred by partner in respect of arranging money for his capital or loans to firm, shall be deducted from his income. For example interest paid by partner for borrowed money for investing in partnership firm.
  3. Any interest, salary, remuneration, commission or bonus which is disallowed at the time of calculation of income tax of partnership firm, shall not be added in the income of partners.
  4. Any share of the partner in the income of firm shall be fully exempt from income tax.
  5. In case of share of loss from partnership firm, can not be set off against any other business income of partner. It is simply ignored.
  6. Partnership firm is not liable to deduct the tax at source on interest on capital, salary, bonus, commission and remuneration paid to partner.


Net profit of M/s X Y Enterprises for financial year 2011-12 after providing the interest on capital and remuneration to partners is Rs.76000/=. The firm has two partner namely Mr. X and Mr. Y. Capital of Mr. X is 500000/= and Capital of Mr. Y is Rs.300000/=. The firm has paid the interest on their capital @ 15% per annum i.e. Rs.120000/=. Both are the working partners of the firm and are entitled for equal share in income of the firm. The firm has paid a remuneration of Rs.200000/= to each partner.

Calculate (a) income tax  amount of firm and (b) income of  partners from partnership firm


To solve the above illustration, we have to follow the following steps to understand it in easy way. Though, there may be difference in presentation of figures by different people but the result will be same.

a) Amount of Interest to be allowed by firm as per income tax act:-


Partner’s Name Capital employed InterestPaid @ 15% Interest allowed @ 12% Interest disallowed
Mr. X





Mr. Y










b) Computation of Book Profit

Net Profit as Profit and Loss Account


Add: Interest in excess of 12%


Add: Remuneration paid to partners(Rs.200000/= to each partner)


Book profit of firm


c) Amount of remuneration to be allowed by firm as per Income Tax Act

90% of first Rs.300000/= book profit


60% of  balance book profit of Rs.200000/=(Rs.500000/= minus Rs.300000/=)


Total Remuneration allowed


Total Remuneration disallowed


d) Taxation of income of M/s X Y Enterprises

Net Profit of firm as per Profit & Loss Account


Add: Interest disallowed in excess of 12%


Add: Remuneration disallowed to partners


Total Taxable Income


Income Tax payable by the firm @ 30% on Rs.110000/=


Add: Education Cess @ 2% on Rs.33000/=


Add: Secondary & Higher Education Cess @ 1% on Rs.33000/=


Total Tax payable by the firm (33000+660+330)


e) Partner’s share of profit in the firm (exempt from income tax)

According to calculation under clause (d) above, taxable net profit of the firm, after all adjustment, is Rs.110000/=  an income tax paid on above amount is Rs.33990/=.  Balance amount of Rs. 76010/= shall be transferred to capital accounts of partners in 50-50 ratio.

Please note this amount is tax free in hands of partner and not tax shall be paid on it. The logic of non-payment of income tax by partners on their share from taxable income from partnership firm is that the firm has already paid income tax on that amount and that is the highest income tax slab under all categories of the income tax payers and to avoid the double taxation of income.

f) Taxable Income of Each Partner from Firm


Mr. X

Mr. Y

Remuneration from firm



Allowed Interest on capital



Total taxable income from firm